Happy International Podcast Day!

Happy International Podcast Day! On September 30th, 2022, we recognize podcasts and podcasters of their work and spreading their stories with the world. I am so happy that my podcast has gotten so far and I really want to thank you, my listeners! My mission when starting this podcast was to spread the spectacular things …

How Do Hurricanes Form Over The Ocean?

Hurricanes are a group of storm clouds that create a very dangerous storm. If you see a hurricane from space, you will see a giant swirling cloud. Hurricanes can bring heavy rain, wind, and sometimes minor tornadoes. Hurricanes are formed when storm clouds form over warm water. As the storm clouds move, the warm water …

First Day of Fall In The Northern Hemisphere!

Fall is here in the Northern Hemisphere! In this post, you will learn about why leaves fall from trees during the fall! Trees are living things, just like us. They are called organisms. You’ve seen that some trees lose all of their leaves in the fall and go dormant or in a resting stage in …

How Do Electrical Wires Work?

This is because the material inside of the wires is a conductor. Conductors are materials that electrons can travel through easily. Conductors are usually made out of metals. Conductors are used in the electrical wiring itself! Humans are also conductors of electricity (that is very dangerous) That is why humans should wear insulators to protect themselves from …

What Are The Smaller Parts Of An Atom?

Atoms are the microscopic building blocks of the universe. They make up almost ANY material including solids, liquids, and gases! A human has more than 1 billion atoms! Atoms have specific parts. There is the nucleus, which is the center of the atom. Then, there are even smaller parts. They are protons, neutrons, and electrons! …

What Is The Nitrogen Cycle!

Nitrogen is an element that very common on Earth. In fact, nitrogen makes up most of the air that we breathe in. This nitrogen actually cycles through different forms and stages over time. This cycle is kind of similar to the carbon cycle. The nitrogen cycle starts as nitrogen gas in the atmosphere. This gas …

What Are The Characteristics Of Living Things?

Living things are also called organisms! Humans, plants, and even bacteria are great examples of living things. But, what determines that a thing is living? There are a few characteristics that make things living. One is that they are made out of cells. Living things are ALL made out of cells. Cells are tiny building …

What Are Ocean Currents?

Ocean currents are rivers of water that move around the world. There are deep ocean currents and surface currents. Deep ocean currents are caused by differences the water’s density. Density is how close molecules are packed together in an object. The density of water is impacted by salinity (how much salt there is) and temperature. …

Why Are Electric Stoves Better Than Gas Stoves?

Electric stoves are now used in place of gas stoves because they can heat things more evenly. Electric stoves used electricity to heat up and cook food. When you turn the stove on, the electricity flows through metal coils that are either exposed or under the cooking surface (if you have a glass ceramic surface). …

What Is The Difference Between Pressure and Electric Rice Cookers?

The main parts of a basic electric rice cooker are the outer pot, inner pot, the heating element, lid, and button controls. The outer pot contains the heating element. The inner pot, where the uncooked rice goes, fits inside of the outer pot. The heating element heats up metal coils in the outer pot to …

How Does REM Sleep Affect Your Body?

REM Sleep or Rapid Eye Movement Sleep is a very important stage for human health. REM Sleep is the stage when your brain is active, dreams occur, and your eyes move back and forth rapidly under your eyelids. During this stage, your brain is very active! The brain organizes information it learned the past day in a …

What Is The Difference Between Airplanes and Helicopters?

Airplanes are machines that can fly with engine or propeller power. They are able to use aerodynamics (how air and objects move) to fly. Airplanes make it so that we can travel around the world in just a few hours! Airplanes can coke in all shapes and sizes like the tiny airplanes that you see …

What Causes The Continents On Earth To Move?

They move thanks to convection currents. Convection currents all start with density. Density is how much “stuff” (atoms and molecules) that are packed into one thing. If something has a high density, all of the atoms and molecules are close together and will sink. If something has a low density, the atoms and molecules are …

Grass Alarm Smell! The Strong Smell of Mown Grass

You probably know the smell of freshly-mown grass. It is a very strong smell and, for some people, is relaxing. This smell comes from the cut grass and is made up of lots of chemicals that plants make. But, that soothing and very strong smell is actually a plant distress call!! Plants don’t have a …

What Are The Differences Between Amphibians and Reptiles?

Reptiles are cold-blooded vertebrate (has a backbone) animals. Reptiles are ectothermic, meaning that they rely on the Sun’s energy to heat them up and match the temperature in the air around them. When it is cold outside, reptiles become more inactive in order to maintain a body temperature and are very active when it warms up! Most …

The Providence Canyon in Georgia!

Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia is home to Providence Canyon, also known as “The Little Grand Canyon”. This canyon formed because of clearcutting of trees and farming. The land’s history began millions of years ago when sediments were deposited under ancient seas and coastal beaches. These delicate ribbons of sand were protected by trees and …

What Is Mechanical Weathering?

Weathering is the breaking down of rock by many natural agents like water, wind, and gravity. Mechanical Weathering is when rocks are broken down without a chemical change. They are changing their physical properties. Mechanical weathering can split rocks in half and turn them into dust! Some examples of Mechanical Weathering are ice wedging (when water …

What Is Green Energy?

Green Energy means a way to make power without polluting the atmosphere. Most power plants today use coal and gasoline to generate electricity. When they burn coal and gasoline, it creates Carbon Dioxide (CO2) which is a Greenhouse Gas. This means that it traps the Sun’s energy in the atmosphere and makes the planet hotter. This causes …

What Causes Objects To Slow Down On Earth?

It is all because of friction. Friction is a force that happens when two or more objects are rubbed together. This can break the object, generate heat, or make sounds. Friction is a force that blocks the movement. That is why remote control cars can’t drive well on carpet. When there is too much friction, …

Why Do Some Fruits Have Peels Or Shells?

Fruits are pieces of plants that have sugar inside of them. They don’t always have to be sweet to be a fruit! Fruits have either of these two things: seeds or come from flowering plants. The entire purpose of fruits is to help the plant reproduce. The seeds help the plants make more plants. If …

How Do Fireworks Explode And Create Dazzling Colors In The Sky?

Aerial fireworks are the fireworks that you see launched into the sky! They are usually fired using rockets and mortars. These fireworks create a dazzling light show above us! They all start with a paper tube. That tube is filled with small bits of metal, like iron or steel, colorants (made using gases/elements such as …

What Makes The Sky Appear Blue?

The Visible light spectrum is the different colors in the white light that we see. The different colors are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. You can see these colors by bending light with a prism or with water. The sky is blue because the molecules (building blocks of the universe) in the …

What Do Plants Use Sunlight For?

Plants need sunlight because plants use the Sun to make food. Chlorophyll helps plants collect the sunlight. Chlorophyll is made up of even smaller parts called Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts have a green color to them. Leaves have Chloroplast because they help the plant or tree collect sunlight and turn it into sugar. That process is called …

What Are The Effects of Deforestation?

Deforestation is when people cut down large areas of forests. These trees are cut down in a way called clearcutting. Clearcutting is when all of the trees in the area are completely gone. This can be done for new buildings, roads, logging, or farmland. Clearcutting and deforestation in general can be very bad for the …

What Makes Some Plastics Clear?

Plastic is a type of polymer. Polymers are certain materials that have atoms that are bonded together in a link pattern. Atoms are the tiny building blocks of all elements. When atoms bond together, like in polymers, they form molecules! Poly means many and mer or mers means units. Polymers means many units! A great example of a human-made polymer is …

A Few Million Years Ago, Antarctica Was a Rainforest! How?

Antarctica, a few million years ago, was a rainforest! Now, we see Antarctica as a giant deserts with just ice. How did this transformation happen? It all happened because of the continents moving. They move thanks to convection currents. Convection currents all start with density. Density is how much “stuff” (atoms and molecules) that are …

What Makes It Easy For Cheetahs To Run So Fast?

A cheetah is a mammal that mostly lives in the African Savanna. It is covered in spots and has black markings under its eyes. Cheetahs are in the genus or family Acinonyx. They are unlike big cats like tigers or lions because they do not have retractable claws that they can pull in. Their claws are …

How Are Rainbows Created?

Rainbows are optical illusions that happen when light bends in water droplets and splits into different colors. Those colors are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. White light is made out of all these colors. When it rains, lots of water droplets are in the sky. The Sun shines through these water droplets. …

How Do Fuses Help With Short Circuits?

A circuit is a path that current electricity or electrons can flow through. Current electricity is a type of human-made electricity. A simple circuit is made out of four parts: the power source, wires, the load, and a switch! A simple circuit works by electrons, which are negatively charged, exit from the negative terminal of …

How Do Electric Cars Work?

Electric cars work differently from regular gasoline-powered cars. Regular cars work using an Internal Combustion Engine that creates a small, controlled explosion inside of the engine. That moves a piston which is connected to a wheel. That wheel then moves while the piston is moving! That gasoline that you put into your car powers the …

How Does Echolocation Work?

Echolocation is when animals locate objects using sound. Bats, dolphins, and other animals use echolocation. First, the animal makes a sound, which is usually high pitched. This helps the sound travel farther and also give it more energy. Then, the sound reflects or bounces off of a surface or another animal. Then, the sound reflects back to …

How Plastic Is Made!!

Plastic is a type of polymer. Polymers are certain materials that have atoms that are bonded together in a link pattern. Atoms are the tiny building blocks of all elements. When atoms bond together, like in polymers, they form molecules! Poly means many and mer or mers means units. Polymers means many units! A great example of a human-made polymer is …

Why Do Flowers Wilt After They Have Been Taken Off The Plant?

Flowers are an assortment of petals and pollen that a plant produces to reproduce. The pollen of a flower contains the genetic information to make seeds and new plants. Besides being pretty, flowers actually make fruits possible! A fruit is what is left after a flower dies and sugar is put into the dead flower bulb. Thank …

May 15-16 – Amazing Lunar Eclipse!

Yesterday was a total lunar eclipse over the United States! I was very excited for this eclipse to happen! Just a refresher, a lunar eclipse is when Earth’s shadow is cast on the Moon. This causes the Moon to appear red because of the light being scattered on Earth. This is called the “Blood Moon”. Before the …

Rate The Lunar Eclipse That Is Coming Up!

Get ready, because tonight, a total lunar eclipse is visible over the United States! Check out our post yesterday about lunar eclipses to refresh yourself. While you’re watching the lunar eclipse, use our worksheet, Rate a Lunar Eclipse, to use the Danjon Scale to rate what color the Moon is an how bright it is! …

How Does Earth’s Tilt Cause Seasons?

Seasons are different climate patterns that happen throughout different times in a year! Places on Earth experience seasons at different times. Some seasons are noticeable and others are not. We have seasons because the Earth is slightly tilted on its axis. An axis is an imaginary rod going from the top to the bottom where …

How Do We See Things And Know What Color They Are?

Let’s start with light. Light can be broken up into a few colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet! When we see white light coming from the Sun or a lightbulb, that white light is all of the rainbow colors together. When the white light hits an object it reflections, or bounces of …

What is Hair And Why Is It Important?

Hair is a strand of string protein that grows out of hair follicles or tiny sacs in your skin. Hair is made up of keratin, the same material your fingernails are made out of. Hair grows through a process of cells dividing and getting pushed out of the follicle. This causes a strand of cells …

Why Is Earth The Only Planet In Our Solar System That Supports Life?

There are a few reasons why Earth is the only planet in the Solar System to support life. One is that Earth is located in the “Goldilocks Zone” from the Sun. The “Goldilocks Zone” is a specific distance from the Sun where it is not too hot or not too cold. It is just right! …

Why Will Your Weight Change If You Are On Another Planet?

Go to projects.spectacularsci.com/calculate-your-weight-on-planets to try out my new weight calculator on planets! This will tell you how much you will weigh if you are on another planet in the Solar System! If you try out the calculator, you might notice that your Earth weight differs from planet to planet! But, why does that happen? It …

What Is The Difference Between Viruses and Bacteria?

A virus is infectious object that depends on living organisms’ cells to multiply. They are bad for living organisms and take over cells. Viruses infect a body and travel to a cell and inject it’s DNA code into the cell which will make the virus multiply and will destroy the cell. This is how viruses make us …

How Do Black Holes Consume Stars and Matter?

A black hole is a place in space that is extremely dense and has a strong gravitational pull. This is because a lot of matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This usually happens when a star is dying. Black holes can suck in entire stars and planets! Black holes can be from the size of a single atom to …

What Caused The Formation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a divergent tectonic plate boundary that is on the ocean floor. A divergent boundary is when two tectonic plates move apart from each other. In this case, the plates are the South American Plate and the African Plate. As those plates pull apart, magma from below the Earth’s crust rises up and cools …

Why Does Pollen Give Some People Allergies?

Pollen is a sticky substance that is found inside of most flowering plants. Pollen is in the middle of the flower of the plant. Pollen is attached to long structures called stamens and smaller structures called pistils. This pollen helps make new plants grow through a process called pollination. That is when pollen is transferred …

Why Are Bees Important For Flowers?

Bees are important in a lot of ways, but the most important is pollination. Pollen is a sticky substance that is found inside of most flowering plants. Pollen is in the middle of the flower of the plant. Pollen is attached to long structures called stamens and smaller structures called pistils. This pollen helps make …

What Causes A Chemical Reaction?

Chemical reactions are when two or more materials combine to make a new material! The two materials usually react with each other, producing that new material. This happens when molecular and atomic bonds are broken apart or connected. A great example is when you mix baking soda and vinegar to make Carbon dioxide gas! There …

What Makes Graphite Weaker Than Diamond Even Though They Are Made Of The Same Element?

Graphite and diamonds are both made out of Carbon. Carbon is a very abundant element. But, why is diamond stronger than graphite if they are made out of the same material? It is all because of the arrangement of the atoms into molecules. Atoms are the microscopic building blocks of the universe. They make up …

What Is Run-Off Of Water?

Run-off is when precipitation (snow, rain sleet, or hail) hits the ground and drains into rivers, lakes, and oceans. This run-off is what causes accumulations or build-ups of water. Run-off is also a cause of erosion, which can break down and carry rocks to different places. Millions of years ago, planet Earth did not really have rivers …

What Is A Stethoscope?

A stethoscope is a instrument used by doctors and other medical specialists. It is used to measure people’s heartbeat and their breathing. It is placed on the area where the heart is or on the back. A modern stethoscope is made up of a Y-shaped flexible plastic tube. An earpiece is attached to each end of the Y and a sound-detecting device at the other end. The sound-detecting device …

What Are Some Ways Rocks Can Weather?

Weathering is when rocks get broken down into pieces. Weathering can happen in many different ways, from salt to clay to ice! We are going to focus on the 5 main ways: water, ice, salt crystallization, clay formation, and plant roots. To learn more about weathering, check out our episode about weathering! Weathering with water happens …

What Is The Nervous System?

The nervous system is the collection of all the nerves in your body and its function is to receive and send information on what’s going with the body. The nervous system includes your brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord are the centers where the information is being sent and received. Without the …

What Are The 3 Types of Heat Transfer?

Heat transfer is the spread of heat between objects. There are three types: conduction, radiation, and convection. Conduction is heat that is transferred through direct contact. Conductors are materials that allow heat to pass through them. An example of conduction is touching a hot pot on a stove (NEVER do that!). Then, there is radiation. …

How Do SPG Nerves Cause Brain Freezes?

A brain freeze is an informal term for Sphenopalatine Ganglion Neuralgia. It is when the blood vessels in your brain expand to cause a headache! This is all caused SPG nerves. These nerves are at the back of your mouth and are very sensitive to cold foods like ice cream. SPG nerves or the sphenopalatine …

How Do The Continents Move?

They move thanks to convection currents. Convection currents all start with density. Density is how much “stuff” (atoms and molecules) that are packed into one thing. If something has a high density, all of the atoms and molecules are close together and will sink. If something has a low density, the atoms and molecules are …

How Do Cumulonimbus Clouds Form?

Cumulonimbus clouds are storm clouds. Clouds are large collections of water droplets that can be frozen, but only sometimes. They form due to condensation, when water evaporates into a gas and cools down above the Earth. Then, the water drops attach to pieces of dust or dirt that are above the Earth. As more droplets …

What Are Low Pressure Systems?

Air molecules around us push down on us all the time. The air from the atmosphere takes up space, so it has mass (weight). The more atmosphere above you, the more the air pressure. There is actually 14.7 pounds per square inch of your body pushing down on you right now!! That means that your …

What Are Flowers and What Is Their Purpose?

Flowers are an assortment of petals and pollen that a plant produces to reproduce. The pollen of a flower contains the genetic information to make seeds and new plants. Besides being pretty, flowers actually make fruits possible! A fruit is what is left after a flower dies and sugar is put into the dead flower bulb. Thank …

Why Is There So Much Pollen In The Air During Spring?

There is so much pollen in the air because lots of flowers bloom in the Spring. Pollen is a sticky substance that is found inside of most flowering plants. Pollen is in the middle of the flower of the plant. Pollen is attached to long structures called stamens and smaller structures called pistils. This pollen …

Why Do Leaves That Fall On The Ground Dry Up?

During the Fall, leaves from trees fall to the ground and the trees become dormant. Over time, those leaves on the ground start to shrink and turn brown. Then, they dry up. Why? It is all because the leaf is not receiving or making water or nutrients. When a leaf is attached to a tree …

How Do Plants Know When To Grow?

Plants know when to grow because of the change in temperature. As spring approaches, there will be an increase in temperature because the Earth is tilted towards the Sun. The temperature change is very noticeable for animals and plants too! When the seed or dormant plant senses that the temperature is increasing, it starts sprouting …

How Does Photosynthesis Work?

Photosynthesis is the process of taking sunlight and Carbon dioxide and making it into Oxygen gas and sugar! The word “photo” means light. Photosynthesis is used by green plants, algae, and bacteria. That helps the bacteria, plants, or algae make food for themselves. Photosynthesis also made our Oxygen atmosphere! These organisms use a part of their …

What Is The Differences Between Solids and Liquids?

A solid has the atoms packed tightly together, without any gaps. Solids have a definite size and shape. The solid state of matter is very common in the universe. The atoms make the solid positively charged (more protons) or negatively charged (more electrons). Electrons and protons are even smaller parts of atoms. When solids heat …

What Are The Layers of a Tree’s Bark?

Just like an onion, there are many layers to a tree’s bark. The 5 main layers are the outer bark, inner bark (phloem), cambium cell layer, sapwood, and heartwood. The outer bark is the tree’s first line of defense from rain, extreme temperatures, and insects. It is always renewed by the inner bark, which is …

How Do Tectonic Plates On Earth Move?

They move thanks to convection currents. Convection currents all start with density. Density is how much “stuff” (atoms and molecules) that are packed into one thing. If something has a high density, all of the atoms and molecules are close together and will sink. If something has a low density, the atoms and molecules are …

What Is The Mid-Atlantic Ridge?

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a divergent tectonic plate boundary that is on the ocean floor. A divergent boundary is when two tectonic plates move apart from each other. In this case, the plates are the South American Plate and the African Plate. As those plates pull apart, magma from below the Earth’s crust rises up …

How Does Hydroelectricity Work?

Hydroelectricity or hydropower is a way of harnessing water in order to make electricity! This is a renewable source of power. Renewable resources are resources that can be replaced and do not run out. Renewable means that we can constantly renew or make/get more of these resources. They can be replaced in a human lifetime …

What Are Warm-Blooded Animals?

Warm-blooded animals always have a fixed body temperature and is always different from the outside temperature. Most warm-blooded animals are vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals with a backbone. The backbone is also known as the vertebrate! The backbone is a row of connected bones that run down the back. Vertebrates animals make up only 5% of …

What Are Cold-Blooded Animals?

Cold-blooded animals are animals that rely on the outdoor temperature to determine their own body temperature. Most cold-blooded animals are invertebrates. Invertebrates are animals without a backbone. That means that they are the opposite of vertebrate animals. Invertebrates make up 95% if the Earth’s animals! Some invertebrates have a hard covering on the outside of …

How Do Ocean Waves Form?

 Waves are created by energy passing through water, causing it to move in a circular motion. However, water does not actually travel in waves. Waves transmit energy, not water, across the ocean and if not obstructed by anything. Ocean waves are most commonly caused by wind. Wind-driven waves, or surface waves, are created by the friction …

What Are Severe Thunderstorms?

Thunderstorms are storms with cumulonimbus or storm clouds. The clouds have water inside of them and the water pours down on the ground below. Thunderstorms can also have heavy winds. Lightning and thunder are the main things in thunderstorms. First, we have to start off with a storm cloud. Tiny pieces of ice, which are …

What Are The Ways Moons Can Form?

A moon is a natural satellite that orbits around a larger object like a planet. A natural satellite is different from a human made satellite because natural satellites are produced naturally.  Moons usually have a stable orbit. This means that the rate of which the moon circles around the planet is just the right speed. …

What Is Water Pollution?

Water pollution is when humans dump trash and harmful or toxic chemicals into waterways like oceans, streams, rivers, and ponds. This trash and chemicals can cause problems for marine life. This trash can also come back to humans! When humans drink water, the water may be polluted! This is also a very big problem in …

What Conditions Have To Be Met To Snow?

The white, powdery precipitation called snow is a winter’s delight! It falls from the sky as snowflakes. One condition is the temperature. It has to be below freezing or below 32°F or 0°C. This freezing temperature makes the water in the atmosphere freeze and turn into snowflakes! The other condition is atmospheric lift. This is …

What Are Reptiles?

Reptiles are cold-blooded vertebrate (has a backbone) animals. Reptiles are ectothermic, meaning that they rely on the Sun’s energy to heat them up and match the temperature in the air around them. When it is cold outside, reptiles become more inactive in order to maintain a body temperature and are very active when it warms …

What Are Amphibians?

Amphibians are a group of animals that live part of their lives in water and part on land! They are cold-blooded, small invertebrates that need water or a moist environment to survive. Amphibians include frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, and caecilians. They depend on the sun for warmth because they are ectothermic. Ectothermic means that they …

What Is The Difference Between Air and Water Pressure?

Right now, as you are reading this, there are tons of air pushing down on you. That is air pressure. As you might know, the Earth is covered with a blanket of gases. That is called the atmosphere. The air from the atmosphere takes up space, so it has mass (weight). The more atmosphere above …

What Is Evapotranspiration?

Evapotranspiration is the process of evaporation and transpiration combined. Evaporation is when water evaporates from the ground. This is when the sunlight heats the water and turns it into a gas called water vapor. As the sunlight heats up the water, the molecules get farther apart and start to turn into a gas or water …

What Are The Parts of An Atom?

Atoms are the microscopic building blocks of the universe. They make up almost ANY material including solids, liquids, and gases! A human has more than 1 billion atoms! Atoms have specific parts. There is the nucleus, which is the center of the atom. Then, there are even smaller parts. They are protons, neutrons, and electrons! …

What Is Adhesion of Water?

Adhesion is a property that water has. Adhesion means that water molecules like to “stick” to other water molecules and other things. That is actually why water forms in round drops! Adhesion also makes water more vulnerable to pollution because water sticks to many materials. Adhesion also helps plant suck up water from the ground. …

What Are Natural Plastics?

Natural plastics are any natural material that has the polymer structure. That is a structure that has a chain of molecules. Natural plastics were used before human-made plastics were invented. Natural plastics are formed with the polymer structure. Examples of these natural plastics are rubber, skin, bones, and even DNA. Rubber from rubber trees were …

What Causes Seasons?

Seasons are different climate patterns that happen throughout different times in a year! Places on Earth experience seasons at different times. Some seasons are noticeable and others are not. We have seasons because the Earth is slightly tilted on it’s axis. An axis is an imaginary rod going from the top to the bottom where …

Why Does The Sun Rise and Set?

The Sun rises and sets because of Earth’s rotation. The Earth and the planets orbit the Sun, but they also spin on their own axis,. The axis is the point from which the planet rotates on. Earth’s axis is tilted, which is what makes seasons! When the Earth spins, different sides of the planet experience …

Recycling! Start 2022 With Something Good for Earth

Happy New Year! Welcome to 2022! Recycling is the process of making used or old things into new things. Recycling usually happens with some plastics, glass, and paper. They melt/shred the materials and make new objects out of them. Recycling reuses the material and shapes it into new objects that can be used again! Recycling …

What Is Mount Everest?

Located on the border of Tibet and Nepal, Mount Everest is the tallest mountain in the world. It reaches a height of 8,848 meters above sea level, which is equal to the height of 5.5 miles! Mount Everest was formed because of converging tectonic plates. Tectonic plates are giant slabs of rock that move. Tectonic plates make up the curst, the thinnest …

All About the North Pole – The Arctic!

When you talk about the North Pole, it can mean the North Magnetic Pole or the North Geographic Pole. In this post, we are going to focus on the North Geographic Pole. That is the point on Earth where all the lines of longitude meet to form a single point. The North Pole is located …

Why Is Plastic Used In So Many Things?

Plastic is a type of polymer, or a chain of atoms and molecules. That chain pattern gives plastic some amazing abilities! They are flexible because the chains of atoms can be twisted or turned in many different shapes, sometimes even when the object is a solid! It is moldable (or easy to twist into different …

How Do Incandescent Lights Work?

Incandescent lights were the first type of lightbulb to be created. They are different from LED Lights. Read our post about LED Lights to learn more! Incandescent lights work with using the heat and light that is produced when electricity flows through things. Inside of incandescent lights, there is a small part called a filament. …

What Are Convection Currents?

Convection currents are the movement of hot and cold things. Convection currents all start with density. Density is how much “stuff” (atoms and molecules) that are packed into one thing. If something has a high density, all of the atoms and molecules are close together and will sink. If something has a low density, the …

How Do Telescopes Work?

Telescopes are devices that let people see things that are far away. People at sea also use telescopes. Telescopes are most commonly used to look at space. The inventor of the telescopes was Galileo Galilei. He invented the telescope with eyeglass parts. Telescopes work using light. Light is everywhere! The telescope has two mirrors. They …

What Are The Layers of the Earth?

Believe it or not, the Earth has layers just like an onion! Let’s start at the top. The part we walk on is called the crust. It is a thin layer that harbors life. Next, is the mantle. This layer is underneath the crust. Lot’s of minerals form in this area including diamonds and emeralds. …

Why Do Some People Have Pollen Allergies?

Pollen is a sticky substance that is found inside of most flowering plants. Pollen is in the middle of the flower of the plant. Pollen is attached to long structures called stamens and smaller structures called pistils. This pollen helps make new plants grow through a process called pollination. That is when pollen is transferred …

What Are Magnetic Domains?

Magnetism is an invisible force that attracts or repels certain objects. Magnets attract or repel things made out of iron, nickel, and cobalt. Objects are magnetic because the electrons, which spin around an atom’s nucleus, are spinning in the same direction (they are all lined up). The spinning electrons create an invisible magnetic field, which …

How Do Earthquakes Happen?

Earthquakes are energy that is released in the tectonic plate boundaries. Tectonic plates are giant slabs of rock that move around! The crust (outermost layer of the Earth) is made up of these tectonic plates. These tectonic plates can get stuck. When they do this, lots of pressure builds up. Kind of like when you …

How Are Mountains Formed?

Mountains are tall slabs of rock that pop up on the crust. Mountains can be very tall or very small, depending on how they are formed. Mountains can form because of magma cooling or tectonic plate movement. We are going to tell you about both! Mountains can form in two main ways: magma cooling and …

What Are The Building Blocks of Soil?

Soil is just rock that has been weathered. Weathering is when wind, water, or other natural agent wears away at rock. This take millions of years to happen. As the wind or water etches away at the rock, the pieces of soil or rock that come off get carried to someplace new. Soil is not …

How Does It Rain Diamonds On Uranus and Neptune?

You might think that it only rains diamonds in fairy tales or movies, but it turns out that it actually rains diamonds on Uranus and Neptune! These diamonds fall towards the cores of these planets! These diamonds are not the size of ring diamonds, they are the size of BOULDERS!!!! How in the universe does …

How Do Sinkholes Form?

Sinkholes are large holes in the ground that form when water seeps into the ground. Limestone, a type of rock can dissolve very easily in water. As the water seeps into the cracks on the ground, it dissolves the limestone rock under the surface. The limestone becomes weak and creates a hole under all of …

Hurricanes! What They Are

Hurricanes are a group of storm clouds that create a very dangerous storm. If you see a hurricane from space, you will see a giant swirling cloud. Hurricanes can bring heavy rain, wind, and sometimes minor tornadoes. Hurricanes are formed when storm clouds form over warm water. As the storm clouds move, the warm water …

What is Bernoulli’s Principle?

Daniel Bernoulli was a famous scientist and discovered or property or principle of fluids and air. The thing that Bernoulli discovered that… Fast moving air creates an area of low pressure Bernoulli’s Principle Pressure is how much air is pushing down on an object. The area of low pressure means that the air will be …

What Are Bacteria?

Bacteria are single-celled organisms or living things. They are also called microorganisms. They are called this because microorganisms are living things that can not be seen with the naked eye. Bacteria can be good for you or bad for you. We are going to learn about the good and bad about bacteria. Bacteria can help …

What Are The 4 Types of Precipitation?

Precipitation is part of the water cycle. Precipitation is when the liquid water falls to the ground. This happens when a cloud becomes heavy and all the water will fall to the ground. There are three different types of precipitation. Rain, snow, sleet, and hail. We are going to talk about each of them! Rain is …

How Does The Volume of Thunder Change?

Thunder happens because of lightning. Here is how lightning happens: First, we have to start off with a storm cloud. Tiny pieces of ice, which are actually frozen water droplets, clash around inside of the storm cloud. This clashing makes an electric charge that is then stored inside of the cloud. The positively charged electricity …

What Are Invertebrate Animals?

Invertebrates are animals without a backbone. That means that they are the opposite of vertebrate animals. Invertebrates make up 95% if the Earth’s animals! Some invertebrates have a hard covering on the outside of their bodies called an exoskeleton. Besides that, invertebrates are usually creatures that do not have bones as a support. Invertebrates are …

What Are Vertebrate Animals?

Vertebrates (pronounced ver-ti-brates) are animals with a backbone. The backbone is also known as the vertebrate! The backbone is a row of connected bones that run down the back. Vertebrates animals make up only 5% of all of the animals on Earth. Besides having a backbone, vertebrate animals have a skeleton with bones as a …

How Are Sand Dunes Formed?

Have you ever seen a picture of a desert? Did the picture have these sand “waves”? Those wavy hill structures are called Sand Dunes. Sand Dunes are big hill-like piles of sand or soil that get blown by the wind or can be impacted by other living animals. Sand Dunes form when a powerful wind …

What is Hail?

Hail is a type of frozen precipitation. Precipitation is part of the water cycle. Precipitation is when the liquid water falls to the ground. This happens when a cloud becomes heavy and all the water will fall to the ground. There are three different types of precipitation. Rain, snow, sleet, and hail. We are going to …

What Are the Two Types of Weathering?

Weathering is the breaking down of rock by many natural agents like water, wind, and gravity. There are two types of weathering: Mechanical and Chemical Weathering. Mechanical Weathering is when rocks are broken down WITHOUT a chemical change. They are changing their physical properties. Mechanical weathering can split rocks in half and turn them into dust! …

What is The Rock Cycle?

The Rock Cycle is the transformation of rocks over time. The different types of rock that are in the cycle are metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous. Igneous rocks are formed by the cooling of lava or magma, which is melted rock. This can happen outside of or inside of Earth’s crust. Sedimentary rocks are tiny pieces …

Why Is Water Important For Life?

Water is a substance that is found everywhere on Earth! It can be a solid, liquid, or gas. It is necessary for life on Earth. It’s chemical compound is H2O. That means two Hydrogen (H2) atoms and one Oxygen (O₂) atom. This bond is called a Water Molecule. Because of water pollution, the freshwater in the world …

What Happens When There Is A Short Circuit?

A circuit is a path that current electricity or electrons can flow through. Current electricity is a type of human-made electricity. A simple circuit is made out of four parts: the power source, wires, the load, and a switch! A simple circuit works by electrons, which are negatively charged, exit from the negative terminal of …

Falling Leaves! Why Trees Loose Their Leaves and Go Dormant

Trees are living things, just like us. They are called organisms. You’ve seen that some trees lose all of their leaves in the fall and go dormant or in a resting stage in the winter. Only some trees do this weird behavior. We are going to find out why. Trees go dormant because the water …

What Makes Something Magnetic?

Magnetism is an invisible force that attracts or repels certain objects. Magnets attract or repel things made out of iron, nickel, and cobalt. Magnets have 2 poles: a North and South pole. Like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other. Magnetic domains in a metal make that metal magnetic. Magnetic domains are tiny arrangements …

How Do Electrical Wires Transport Electricity?

This is because the material inside of the wires is a conductor. Conductors are materials that electrons can travel through easily. Conductors are usually made out of metals. Conductors are used in the electrical wiring itself! Humans are also conductors of electricity (that is very dangerous) That is why humans should wear insulators to protect themselves from …

Conservation of Natural Resources

A natural resource is any resource that occurs in nature that is used for survival, energy, or to make money for countries. Certain places on Earth have different types or different amounts of natural resources. These resources can be anything from coal to fruits to sunlight! These are only a few examples of natural resources …

What is Magnetism?

Magnetism is an invisible force that attracts or repels certain objects. Magnets attract or repel things made out of iron, nickel, and cobalt. Objects are magnetic because the electrons, which spin around an atom’s nucleus, are spinning in the same direction (they are all lined up). The spinning electrons create an invisible magnetic field, which …

How Does Solar Energy Work?

Solar cells are a sheet filled with hundreds of tiny receptors that are sensitive to the Sun’s energy. The solar cells use these receptors (Photovoltaic Receptors) to create electricity with the Sun’s light. The photons in the Sun’s light knock off the electrons on existing atoms inside of the solar cell. That causes an electric …

Run-Off of Water

Run-off is when precipitation (snow, rain sleet, or hail) hits the ground and drains into rivers, lakes, and oceans. This run-off is what causes accumulations or build-ups of water. Run-off is also a cause of erosion, which can break down and carry rocks to different places. Millions of years ago, planet Earth did not really have rivers …

The Season of Fall (Autumn)!

Fall or Autumn is a transition season between Summer and Winter. The temperature drops and the leaves on some trees fall off. That is why it is called the Fall season! During fall, the mornings can be cold and the evenings can be warmer. The temperatures do not drop below 0, but close to that …

How Do Lithium Ion Batteries Work?

Batteries provide portable, convenient sources of power without wires. It makes many mobile devices possible! Regular dry cell batteries are the most common, but lithium ion batteries are more reliable and rechargeable! That means that when the battery “dies”, you can recharge the battery! Lithium ion batteries work using the anode, cathode, and electrolyte. The anode …

Bacteria! Tiny Living Creatures

Bacteria are single-celled organisms or living things. They are also called microorganisms. They are called this because microorganisms are living things that can not be seen with the naked eye. Bacteria can be good for you or bad for you. We are going to learn about the good and bad about bacteria. Bacteria can help …

Dissolution: Happens Every Day!

Dissolution is when water or another liquid, known as a solvent, dissolves a material, called a solute. Liquids dissolve different materials because the liquids break down the materials and make them smaller. That’s why if you stir sugar in water, the sugar disappear. It doesn’t actually disappear, it just looks like it. The sugar is …

Spectacular Science DEBATE POST!!: Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen

This blog post is another a debate showdown! We take topics and make them into a debate!! Today’s topic is…Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Remember, please send us what type of cooling agent you think is cooler by going to www.spectacularsci.com/debateform-dryice-vs-liquidnitrogen/ and fill out our poll. Dry Ice Dry ice is not just regular ice, it is special! …

How Are Auroras Formed?

Auroras are lights that are only found at the North Pole and the South Pole. They light up the night skies with red, blue, and pink colors! These are known as “The Greatest Light Show on Earth!”. Auroras happen because of “solar winds”. The Sun releases a bunch of highly charged particles called electrons in …

Why Do Flames Go Out When You Blow On It?

Blowing out birthday candles on a cake is an old tradition. But why does the candle go out when you blow on it? That happens for 3 different reasons. One is that your breath pushes away all of the Oxygen gas. Your breath is mostly made out of Carbon dioxide. The Carbon dioxide pushes away …

5 Ways Rocks Can Weather

Weathering is when rocks get broken down into pieces. Weathering can happen in many different ways, from salt to clay to ice! We are going to focus on the 5 main ways: water, ice, salt crystallization, clay formation, and plant roots. To learn more about weathering, check out our episode about weathering! Weathering with water …

Spectacular Science DEBATE POST!!: Mechanical Weathering vs. Chemical Weathering

This blog post is another a debate showdown! We take topics and make them into a debate!! Today’s topic is…Mechanical Weathering vs. Chemical Weathering! Remember, please send us what type of weathering you think is cooler by going to www.spectacularsci.com/debateform and fill out our poll. What is Weathering? Weathering is the breaking down of rock by many natural …

How Do Hurricanes Form?

Hurricanes are a group of storm clouds that create a very dangerous storm. If you see a hurricane from space, you will see a giant swirling cloud. Hurricanes can bring heavy rain, wind, and sometimes minor tornadoes. Hurricanes are formed when storm clouds form over warm water. As the storm clouds move, the warm water …

The History of the Internet!

The Internet is what you are using right NOW to read this blog post! The Internet is a series of computers that are linked together. Today, millions of computers are linked together around the world! Internet can be accessed everywhere from your house, to your school, to your local library! Servers are computers that store …

Nonrenewable Natural Resources

A natural resource is any resource that occurs in nature that is used for survival, energy, or to make money for countries. Certain places on Earth have different types or different amounts of natural resources. These resources can be anything from coal to fruits to sunlight! Read our post about natural resources to learn more! …

Renewable Natural Resources

A natural resource is any resource that occurs in nature that is used for survival, energy, or to make money for countries. Certain places on Earth have different types or different amounts of natural resources. These resources can be anything from coal to fruits to sunlight! Read our post about natural resources to learn more! …

How Do Fuels From Inside The Earth Form Naturally?

Fossil fuels are a liquid that is very easy to burn. They are there fuels found inside of the Earth. That means that fossil fuels are flammable. These fuels are formed by decaying plants and animals that have been underground for millions of years. Fossil fuels are organic or natural materials. Fossil fuels are created …

Natural Resources!

A natural resource is any resource that occurs in nature that is used for survival, energy, or to make money for countries. Certain places on Earth have different types or different amounts of natural resources. These resources can be anything from coal to fruits to sunlight! These are only a few examples of natural resources …

How Do Electric Rice Cookers Work?

Electric rice cookers work in a similar way as a pressure cooker. Read about pressure cookers here! (spectacularsci.com/2021/01/pressure-cookers/) The main parts of a basic electric rice cooker are the outer pot, inner pot, the heating element, lid, and button controls. The outer pot contains the heating element. The inner pot, where the uncooked rice goes, …

Lift, Drag, Thrust, and Weight: The Four Forces of Flight

Airplanes are machines that can fly with engine or propeller power. They are able to use aerodynamics (how air and objects move) to fly. Airplanes make it so that we can travel around the world in just a few hours! Airplanes can come in all shapes and sizes like the tiny airplanes that you see …

Air Pollution + Rain = Acid Rain

What is Acid Rain? Acid rain is rain that has pollutants in it. It usually has air pollutants inside of it. Air pollution is when humans put toxic chemicals or smoke into the air. This can make our air dirty. This can lead to breathing problems for humans and other animals. Plants can also be …

Different Ways Mountains Are Formed!

Mountains are tall slabs of rock that pop up on the crust. Mountains can be very tall or very small, depending on how they are formed. Mountains can form because of magma cooling or tectonic plate movement. We are going to tell you about both! Mountains can form in two main ways: magma cooling and …

Teeny Tiny Plastics: A Big Problem

Plastic is a type of polymer. Polymers are certain materials that have atoms that are bonded together in a link pattern. Atoms are the tiny building blocks of all elements. When atoms bond together, like in polymers, they form molecules! Plastic is made when the oil is refined or cleaned up. Then, the oil goes …

Spectacular Science DEBATE POST!: Batteries vs. Current Electricity!

This blog post is another a debate showdown! We take topics and make them into a debate!! Today’s topic is… Batteries vs. Current Electricity! Remember, please send us what type of electricity you think is more useful by going to www.spectacularsci.com/debateform and fill out our form. Batteries Batteries provide portable, convenient sources of power without wires. It makes …

Why Are Most Invertebrate Animals Small?

Invertebrates are animals without a backbone. That means that they are the opposite of vertebrate animals. Invertebrates make up 95% if the Earth’s animals! Some invertebrates have a hard covering on the outside of their bodies called an exoskeleton. Besides that, invertebrates are usually creatures that do not have bones as a support. Invertebrates are …

How is Plastic Made?

Plastic is a type of polymer. Polymers are certain materials that have atoms that are bonded together in a link pattern. Atoms are the tiny building blocks of all elements. When atoms bond together, like in polymers, they form molecules! Poly means many and mer or mers means units. Polymers means many units! A great example of a human-made polymer is …

How Do Wind Turbines Convert Wind Into Electricity?

Wind is air that is moving at high speeds. It happens when warm and cool air rise and sink. That rising and sinking action makes the air move. Warm air rises and cold air sinks. There is this giant mass of air and wind called the Jet Stream. The Jet Stream is a system of …

Why is Soap Important For Washing Hands?

We all are using soap a lot these days. But, how does it really work? Well, there are tiny pin-shaped molecules in soap. Those pin-shaped molecules have two parts to them: the hydrophilic head and the hydrophobic tail. Hydrophilic means that it bonds or mixes with water and hydrophobic means that it is repelled by …

Why are Bees Important?

Bees are important in a lot of ways, but the most important is pollination. Pollen is a sticky substance that is found inside of most flowering plants. Pollen is in the middle of the flower of the plant. Pollen is attached to long structures called stamens and smaller structures called pistils. This pollen helps make …

What are Cells and Why are They Important?

Cells are the makeup of every living thing! There are two types of cells: plant and animal cells. We are going to talk about Cells in general. Cells make energy by getting Carbon in the form of sugar. Depending on the organism, it make it’s own food or eat food to survive. Cells also make …

Spectacular Science DEBATE POST!: Vertebrates vs. Invertebrates

This blog post is another a debate showdown! We take topics and make them into a debate!! Today’s topic is… Vertebrates vs. Invertebrates! Remember, please send us what type of animal you think is cooler by going to www.spectacularsci.com/debateform and fill out our form. Vertebrates! Vertebrates (pronounced ver-ti-brates) are animals with a backbone. The backbone is also known …

What is the Process of Experimentation?

The process of experimentation or the scientific method is a process that scientists use to conduct experiments. If you want to learn more about science and the scientific method, check out our episode with science teacher and television host, Mr. Steve Spangler! This is what the scientific method is: make a question/observation, make a hypothesis, …

Climate Change Causes Sea-Level Rise

Sea-level rise is when the ice caps of the Earth make the ocean waters rise. The ice caps of the Earth are the North and South poles. Because of Climate Change, when the Earth gets hotter, the ice melts and flows into the ocean. When ice melts, it becomes water. When that extra water makes …

Why Do Flowers Smell Good?

Flowers are an assortment of petals and pollen that a plant produces to reproduce. The pollen of a flower contains the genetic information to make seeds and new plants. Besides being pretty, flowers actually make fruits possible! Flowers are very important to plants and even us! Flowers help attract pollinators to the flowers so that an animal can spread …

How Do Microwaves Heat Up Our Food?

Microwaves are a very complicated machine, but let me break it down for you. First, there is a device inside of the microwave called a Magnetron. This Magnetron produces microwaves, which are a low energy wave on the Visible Light Spectrum. The humming sound is actually the fan that keeps the Magnetron cool. When you …

The Amazing Telescopes! Changed Astronomy Forever

What are Telescopes? Telescopes are devices that let people see things that are far away. People at sea also use telescopes. Telescopes are most commonly used to look at space. The inventor of the telescopes was Galileo Galilei. He invented the telescope with eyeglass parts. How Do Telescopes Work? Telescopes work using light. Light is …

Why Do Helium Balloons Float in the Air?

Helium (He) is an element that is found all over the universe. It is the second most-abundant element in the universe! It is also the second lightest element in the universe. Helium is called a “Noble Gas”. This is because Helium can’t mix well with other elements. Scientists are predicting a Helium shortage in the …

Why are Some Fruits Multi-Layered and Protected?

What are Fruits? Fruits are pieces of plants that have sugar inside of them. They don’t always have to be sweet to be a fruit! Fruits have either of these two things: seeds or come from flowering plants. The entire purpose of fruits is to help the plant reproduce. The seeds help the plants make …

Is Cooking a Chemical Change?

Chemical changes are changes in the molecular structure of a substance. Usually in a Chemical Change, a new substance is formed. There are a few indicators that tell you that a chemical change has happened: Gas is produced (bubbles seen) Light is produced Change in color Change is temperature Precipitate formed (leftover substance) Look for …

Why Does the Volume of a Thunderclap Vary or Change?

How Does Thunder Happen? Thunder happens because of lightning. Here is how lightning happens: First, we have to start off with a storm cloud. Tiny pieces of ice, which are actually frozen water droplets, clash around inside of the storm cloud. This clashing makes an electric charge that is then stored inside of the cloud. …